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Annual Meeting

Fifty-fifth Annual Meeting
Society for the History of Discoveries
October 30 – November 2, 2014
Austin, Texas

SHD Annual Meeting 2014
ScheduleAbstractsAnnual Meeting Photos

Abstracts of Papers to be Delivered at
the 55th Annual Meeting of
The Society for the History of Discoveries
Austin, Texas October 30 – November 2, 2014


Mapping in Humboldt's Shadow:  
The Arrowsmith Maps of Mexico, 1804-1844

David Y. Allen

The Arrowsmith family firm, a leading British publisher of cartographic materials during the first half of the nineteenth century, produced numerous maps and atlases covering the entire world.  The productions of Aaron Arrowsmith and his successors included several maps of Mexico, which were either criticized by, or partially copied from, works by Alexander von Humboldt, whose atlas of New Spain (1808) includes some of the most important and influential maps of Mexico produced during the first half of the nineteenth century.  The story of the Arrowsmith maps of Mexico, and of the relationship between the works of Humboldt and the Arrowsmiths, tells us much about how early nineteenth-century map makers went about their work, and also about the diffusion to Europe and English-speaking North America of geographic knowledge about Mexico during that period.

Biographical Sketch: David Allen holds a Ph.D. in history from Columbia University.  He taught history at Brooklyn College, and served as map librarian at Stony Brook University in New York.  Most of his previous research has focused on the eighteenth and nineteenth century mapping of New York State and the Northeastern United States.  Since retiring in 2004 to Encinitas, California, his interests have shifted towards the cartography of Mexico between 1750-1850.  In addition to reading and writing about maps, he enjoys photography, golf, bird watching, and volunteering at the local botanical garden

Baja California at 1739: An Early Exploration by Ferdinand Konščak

Mirela Altić

Ferdinand Konščak (Fernando Consag) was a renowned Jesuit missionary and explorer of Baja California. His 1746 map of the California peninsula represented a milestone in the history of the mapping of Baja California. Owing to Konščak's diaries, his activity in Baja California from the period of his three expeditions (1746-1754), until his death in 1759, is relatively well known. In contrast, the period between 1731-1746, since his arrival in Baja, had remained practically unknown.

The paper for the first time presents Konščak's early exploration and mapping work in the southern part of the peninsula. His participation in the preparation of an, until now, completely unknown map, compiled in the manner of the best military maps of the period for the purpose of reconstructing Jesuit missions after the Indian rebellion of 1734, has changed everything we have known about this self-taught and self-sacrificing cartographer. The paper is based on original research of the author made at National Library of Spain (Madrid), Archivo General de Indias, Seville (Spain) and Archivum Romanum Societas Iesu (Rome).

Key words: Baja California, Ferdinand Konščak (Fernando Consag), Rebellion of 1734, Jesuit missions, missionary cartography

Biographical sketch: Prof. dr. Mirela Altić, is a chief research fellow in the Institute of Social Sciences Zagreb, Croatia, where she works as a Head of the Centre of Urban and Local History. She specializes in historical geography, historical cartography, urban and local history. At the Department of History of the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Zagreb, as full professor, Dr Altic´ lectures on ‘Introduction to the Reading of Historic Maps’ and ‘Cartographic Sources for European and Croatian History’. She has been the head of Croatian national project, ‘Historic Towns Atlas’, since 2003. She is also the author of 15 books, including five volumes of the Croatian Historic Towns Atlas. In 2004, she won the annual prize for science for her book ‘Historical Cartography: Cartographic Sources in Historical Sciences’. For academic year 2013/2014 she won David Woodward Memorial Fellowship at University of Wisconsin, Madison. Recently she works on the research at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Dr Altic´ is a member of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography and Society for the History of Discoveries.

Town-founding in New Spain

Lauren Beck

In 1553 colonial authorities were petitioned to found San Bartolomé, a Tlaxcalan town in which residents desired to erect a temple. Years later Juan de Valdivia prepared a diagram illustrating which lands he wanted to cultivate. Other settlers requested authorization to establish installations for the purpose of converting natural resources into products such as sugar. Many of these peticiones requesting permission to build infrastructure and to name towns in Spain’s new-world territories reside at the Archivo General de Indias in Seville and the Archivo General de la Nación in Mexico, a number of which were prepared alongside a map or plan (traza) designed to visually relay the importance and value of the requested territories. These attempts to find towns, to establish farms or plantations, or to delineate indigenous space from that of Spanish colonisers, structured space both conceptually and physically.

The creation and commodification of space through descriptive text and image also communicated that value to a European audience and followed the principles of Plato’s receptacle, or khora: “Khōra ‘means’: place occupied by someone, country, inhabited place, marked place, rank, post, assigned position, territory, or region” (Jacques Derrida,On the Name, 109). The cultivation of the platonic void—its filling in with chorographic detail—reflected international competition for new-world territory and involved specific practices that led to the creation of Spanish towns and cities before they were populated, founded and erected.  

Biographical sketch: Dr. Lauren Beck is Associate Professor of Hispanic Studies and Head of the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures at Mount Allison University, Canada. Her recently-published book, Transforming the Enemy in Spanish Culture: The Conquest through the Lens of Textual and Visual Multiplicity (Cambria Press, 2013) deals with the representation of Spain’s enemies, from biblical to more modern times, as well as the concepts of orientalisation and de-occidentalisation. This work dovetails with her next book-length project dedicated to illustrating Spain’s legendary hero, the Cid. She also researches cultural representation on early modern maps of the Hispanic World, and is the editor of the journal Terrae Incognitae. This interest in material cultural has recently been explored in a chapter-length work, “Eighteenth-century Spanish American Terra Incognita: Mapping the Things of Empire”, in Eighteenth-Century Thing Theory in a Global Context: From Consumerism to Celebrity Culture (Ashgate, 2014). She is also co-curating an exhibit dedicated to the publication of maps in books prior to the year 1800.

New Worlds, New Germs: The Role of European Expansion
in the Development of Germ Theory

Josephine Benson

Josephine Benson was selected as the 2014 SHD Essay Contest winner for her essay titled "New Worlds, New Germs: The Role of European Expansion in the Development of Germ Theory." Josephine is a rising sophomore at Brown University. She intends to concentrate in Science and Society, focusing on both geochemistry and science policy and communications. At Brown, she writes for SciToons, a project that produces short educational animations for high school students and the medical school alumni magazine - Brown Medicine Magazine. Over the summer 2014, Josephine is working at the National Youth Science Camp as the office manager and for Smarter Schools LLC, an educational non-profit focused on improving STEM and project-based learning in Ohio schools. Her essay, entitled "New World, New Germs: The Role of European Expansion in the Development of Germ Theory," was written for the class "On the Dawn of Modernity," which was taught by Professor Onésimo Almeida. She hopes to continue studying the historical development of the sciences and apply it to current-day policy.  

The Textual and Cartographic Sources scrutinized
by the Delisles between 1698 and 1718

David Buisseret

The Delisles, father Claude and son Guillaume, are acknowledged to have laid the foundations for a greatly improved cartographic understanding of the Mississippi River valley. This they achieved partly by a close scrutiny of available texts, including particularly the Jesuit Relations, and also by using the information found on maps generated by explorers like Marquette and Joliet. This talk will show how successive Delisle maps, of which there were at least ten different versions from 1696 onwards, varied in their use of the evidence.

Biographical sketch: David Buisseret trained at Cambridge University (1955-1964), and after a spell at the University of the West Indies in Jamaica (1964-1980), between 1980 and 1996 directed the Smith Center for the History of Cartography at The Newberry Library in Chicago. From 1996 to 2006 he was the first Garrett Professor of the History of cartography at the University of Texas at Arlington, and is now back at The Newberry Library as Senior Research Fellow. Dr. Buisseret is a Fellow of the SHD.

‘Discovering’ Australian Women Explorers

Allison Cadzow

In Australian history, exploration has often been represented as a white, masculine story. Yet Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women were involved in exploration expeditions since invasion/settlement in 1788, though less often and less obviously than men. Women as diverse as governor’s wives, such as Jane Franklin and daughters in the 1830s, their maids, botanical collectors and pastoralists' wives such as Caroline Creaghe in the 1880s have recorded representations of country and people they perceived to be 'new' and ‘unknown’ – in diaries, collections, paintings and letters. Aboriginal women such as Dray and Trugannini’s guided exploration expeditions through their own country and beyond, negotiating with local people, providing the names of waterways and other features that were mapped. What meanings and significance may playing this role have had for them?

This panel contribution considers how examination of the women’s accounts, and accounts of their presence, necessitates a rethinking of the terms explorer and exploration which moves well beyond the limited solo/ male/leader focused notion of the explorer. The panel presentation argues for close examination of how these women represented the expeditions they were part of and what they emphasized, in order to achieve a richer understanding of exploration. Careful reading of the accounts of their co-explorers offers other possibilities for interpretation where written accounts do not exist. Considering the women’s accounts and actions, exploration can be conceived of not only as the significant colonial practice of naming and knowing place, but also as discovery in the territories of class, femininity, identity and cross-cultural interactions.

The paper demonstrates that when women's representations of their participation in expeditions (and others representations of them) are the focus of analysis, different pasts and places become visible, complicating histories and suggesting new routes to pursue.

Biographical sketch: Dr. Allison Cadzow is Research Associate on the Serving Our Country: A History of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in defence of Australia project at the Australian National University. She co-authored Rivers and Resilience: Aboriginal People on Sydney’s Georges River (2009) with Professor Heather Goodall. Allison co-edited Nelson Aboriginal Studies (Cengage, 2012) for high school Aboriginal Studies teachers in New South Wales with Professor John Maynard. Her PhD, completed at the University of Technology Sydney, examined non-Aboriginal women’s involvement in Australian exploration expeditions from the 1840s - 1940s.

Mirroring the World: Women and Sixteenth-Century Maps

Genevieve Carlton

Private consumers clamored for maps of the world in the sixteenth century, decorating their homes with depictions of newly discovered lands and far away places. As the revolutionary changes in cartography brought maps into the hands of more Europeans than ever before, multiplying the number of maps circulating in Europe by a thousand-fold, a significant segment of this growing audience for maps was female. Marietta Morosini’s home contained seven maps amongst her collection of over fifty images. Elisabette Condulmer displayed a map of the world next to images of the Madonna. Cornelia Bellon paired her map of Italy with religious images. These clues, contained in the household inventories of Renaissance Venice, hint at the tastes and interests of female map owners.

The growing curiosity about foreign places can be measured not only through the purchase of maps, but also through their content––which reveals an interest particularly in the female inhabitants of locations near and far. The first volume of Braun and Hogenberg’s atlas of cities (1572) included female models for Milan, Florence, and Rome. In Cesare Vecellio’s 1590 work on dress from around the world, De gli habiti antichi, et moderni et diverse parti del mondo, depictions of Venetian widows shared the page with Chinese wives and the “Queen of Florida.” European attention to new-found regions and foreign cultures focused on the women who inhabited those places.

This paper will explore the reception of maps in sixteenth-century Italy by looking both at women as an audience for maps as well as the representations of women in maps.

Biographical sketch: Genevieve Carlton is an Assistant Professor of History at the University of Louisville, and received her Ph.D. from Northwestern University in 2011. Her research focuses on the history of sixteenth-century Italian cartography, particularly the consumption of early printed maps, and she has published articles in Imago Mundi and the Intellectual History Review. Her current book, titled Worldly Consumers: The Demand for Maps in Renaissance Italy, is under contract with the University of Chicago Press and is forthcoming in 2015.

Writing in the Masculine:
Gertrude Lowthian Bell, Gender, and Empire

Genna Duplisea

As one of the first women admitted to the Royal Geographical Society in 1913, Gertrude Lowthian Bell’s career as an explorer, geographer, and archaeologist occupied a space where gender, politics, and the authority to create knowledge conflicted. Modern biographies tend to celebrate Bell as an early feminist and trailblazer not only in the field, but in promoting equality. Yet Bell benefited from her privileged background, wealth, connections, and anti-suffrage beliefs. Her career success correlates with her enacting conservative, imperial practices regarding women’s rights, British paternalism, and Western guardianship over Middle Eastern cultural heritage. Bell’s public and private writings demonstrate the relationship between the knowledge she generated about the Middle East and her dedication to the British Empire.

This paper will examine how Bell wrote about the empire and how the empire wrote about her, using transcripts from Royal Geographical Society discussions, Bell’s travel narrative The Desert and the Sown (1907); articles on exploration as well as politics, by Bell and others; and two documents she produced for the British government, The Arab of Mesopotamia (1917) and Review of the Civil Administration of Mesopotamia (1920).  Writings about Bell—from the Times of London to the Who’s Who biographical dictionary—consistently positioned her in relation to important men, and Bell’s self-presentation as a female explorer depended on seeking honorary masculinity, on being exceptional from rather than representative of her gender. British dominance informed and bound the cultural and geographical knowledge she contributed to her field. Her ability to occupy positions of power as an administrator in Iraq and as a knowledge creator came not from her expertise, but from carefully navigating traditional gender relations and from putting imperialist beliefs about the Middle East into practice.

Biographical note: Genna Duplisea, MSLIS, MA, is a recent graduate of the Simmons College dual-Master’s program in Archives Management and History, where her research focused on cross-cultural encounters, gender, and the relationship between knowledge production and power. This paper is adapted from her thesis, “Lady Adventurer as Imperialist: Women, Orientalism, and Knowledge Production at the Turn of the Twentieth Century.” She is currently the Archivist and Special Collections Librarian at Salve Regina University

The Science of Utopia: Imperialism, Africa, and the Anglo-Eden Trope
in Mary Kingsley’s Travels in West Africa

Amber Foster

This project explores the connections between scientific rhetoric and utopian thought in Victorian travel literature, specifically with regards to Mary Kingsley’s Travels in West Africa (1897).  After the death of her parents, Kingsley made two solo expeditions into what is now known as the French Congo, under the pretense of collecting fish samples and African cultural and spiritual relics (or “fetish”). The bulk of scholarship on Kingsley up to now has focused on her critique of Western ethnocentrism and her feminist revision of the trope of the masculine explorer-adventurer.  At the same time, Kingsley has come under fire for her imperialist rhetoric and the advocacy for British “indirect rule,” a stance which undergirds her ambition to document and preserve native African religious and cultural traditions.  This paper expands upon imperialist considerations of travel writing to show how nineteenth-century scientific narratives about Africa were informed by circulating utopian discourses. Recent critical interventions by J.C. Davis and Dohra Ahmad have highlighted the interconnectivity between the utopian journey and nonfictional travel narratives, such that “the disillusionment of travel is also yoked to its idealization” (Davis).  If nineteenth century utopian narratives were informed by the conventions of the travel narrative, it follows that travel narratives such as Kingsley’s also deployed the trope of Africa as a primitive utopian landscape.  Colonization brought unprecedented global focus on Africa, and reading Kingsley’s scientific discourse in conjunction with the Anglo-Eden trope reveals the ways in which the conventions of travel and utopian narratives had become inextricably intertwined in the Victorian literary imagination.

Biographical sketch: Amber Foster is a candidate for the Ph.D. in English at Texas A&M University. Her research interests include utopian studies and nineteenth-century transnational travel narratives.  She is the recipient of the Hamlin Hill Essay Prize, and her recent critical work on African American travel writer Nancy Prince appears in the November 2014 issue of Utopian Studies.  Her work participates in ongoing efforts to recover the utopian dimensions of transnational and minority travel texts, and, conversely, the ways in which nineteenth-century utopian novels are structured by travel.

The Influences of La Salle’s 1682 Expedition
on the Cartography of Jean-Baptiste Franquelin

Richard Gross

After La Salle had descended the Mississippi River in 1682, he sent much information back to the Abbé Bernou in Paris, and this information was probably used to create Franquelin’s map of 1684. This talk will explain the nature of the subsequent cartographic mistakes, which led to La Salle’s disastrous expedition of 1684

Biographical Sketch:

The Unique Role of the Catholic Church in Settling La Nouvelle France

Tiago Jones

In this paper I will propose that the French contribution to the discoveries in the New World, specifically North America, was inextricably connected with an overarching religious project. More even than New Spain, and unquestionably more so than New England and Virginia, which started out almost entirely as commercial enterprises, New France was profoundly informed by the potentiality of literally redrawing the map of la francophonie catholique. Spain’s discovery in 1492 predated the onset of the Reformation by 25 years and England, with Henry VIII’s 1545 abrogation of the laws against usury and the Black Legend accusing Spain of the very crimes it was most guilty of, was strictly a mercantile power. The fervour of Spanish discovery was a continuation of the medieval spirit of evangelization which had marked the Church throughout its history, as well as a search for means of supporting and enhancing colonization. The Portuguese discoveries followed along much the same lines as their Iberian neighbors; Magalhães and Cabrilho, even sailed under the Spanish.

What marks French discovery as different is that the Reformation was in full swing and, where England ultimately lost out to the Anglican imperative; France was trying to reestablish itself as a primarily Catholic state. The Catholic Church saw an opportunity to reassert its preeminence by making a significant imprint in New France. In spite of the importance of the fur trade, La Nouvelle France was founded as a Catholic colony where, under the influence of Mgr. Montmorency de Laval, Catholicism was more conservative than in France. In the homeland the ideas of writers like Montesquieu influenced enciclopaedistes such as Rousseau, who in turn helped set the stage for the French Revolution.

Therefore, the premise of this paper is to show that the discoverers and explorers of New France were not simply motivated by greed and a lust for power but that a genuine belief in Christian truth was a significant part of their motivation. The Church genuinely believed it was helping to spread the word of God. In order to defend this proposition I will be providing details about 22 of the most important such discoverers. Included amongst these will be the obvious examples of Fathers Jacques Marquette and Claude-Jean Allouez. But there are many other lesser known religious and non-religious adventurers who help to illustrate this premise.

Additionally I will look at the more controversial cases of Samuel de Champlain and Jean François de la Roque who were believed to have been Protestants but, nonetheless, contributed to the overall project of establishing New France along religious lines. In order to further bolster my claim I will also discuss other differential aspects of English and French colonization which point to the greater secularism of the former. For example, when the revolutionaries in the incipient United States invited the French colonials to join them in the cause of revolution they refused, because Catholic theology proscribed radical uprising against authority, whereas the very nature of Protestantism was to protest against authority.

Biographical sketch: Tiago Jones is currently Associate Professor of Romance Languages and Chair of the Foreign Language Department at Campbell University, Buies Creek North Carolina. Previously he taught Portuguese at the University of Puerto Rico-Río Piedras for 4 years. He obtained his Doctorate in Romance Languages from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has interviewed, presented conferences, and published a review on Nobel Prize winning author José Saramago. He has published articles in the MIFLIC Review, The Romance Language Annual and Hispania, as well other reviews, and journals. Most recently he has completed translations of Lauro López Beltrán’s “La persecución religiosa en México” and María Helena Azevedo’s “A Hora Branca.”

The Reception and Interpretation by the Abbé Claude Bernou
of Information received from Canada

Carl Kupfer

During the latter half of the seventeenth century, it was members of the Catholic religious orders, and particularly the Jesuits, who assembled the most information about the French possessions in North America. This information was both textual and cartographic, and the Abbé Bernou was one of the most assiduous collectors of such information. In this talk, the speaker will show how Bernou succeeded in assembling material from a variety of maps, and combining it into a master-map.

Biographical sketch: Carl Kupfer is a registered professional engineer whose consulting firm, founded by him in 1980, has undertaken notable projects surveying and mapping Chicago's waterways and the Lake Michigan waterfront. He is a former deck officer in the US Navy and avid yachtsman, skilled in navigation and map-interpretation; as a member of the Chicago Map Society, he has also collected much historical cartographic material.

Mapping the Great Lakes: Historical Cartography
and Climate History, 1650-1850

Chrisopher Morris

Seventeenth to nineteenth century French and British maps of the Great Lakes may hold evidence of the region’s environmental and climate history, provided that evidence is unlocked and revealed. Exactly what sort of climate evidence and where it may be found in the maps will be the subject of my presentation.My presentation will be based on approximately 400 historical maps of the Great Lakes drawn and printed between 1650 and 1850 that have been compiled and digitized as part of a Digging into Image Data Grant (DID) project jointly funded by the NSF/NEH/JISC. The DID research team, of which I am a collaborator, discovered within the maps potential evidence of short-term meteorological and long-term climatological data in the form of variation in cartographic depictions of coastlines, islands, and water passages. Subsequent research into the climatological and hydrological history of the Great Lakes, using textual evidence gathered from archives in Canada and the U. S. archives and data for the region’s physical and biological history, has strengthened our hypothesis, that the maps hold evidence of the region’s environmental history. The research strategy is to layer archival sources and biophysical data over our computer-assisted observations of our digitized collection of 400+ maps.

The research I want to preview at SHD in Austin in October 2014 will be significant in several ways. It will demonstrate the value of historical maps, imprecise and idiosyncratic as they may be relative to present-day satellite images, for research into past and present environmental and climate issues, and not just for the Great Lakes region but for any place recorded by the European cartographic tradition. The maps will offer researchers a previously ignored set of data points to help them chart climate change. The project will demonstrate to historians and other humanists who do not typically engage scientific or social scientific inquiries into present-day concerns, the interdisciplinary potential of their research. Researchers, for example, from hydrologists interested in water to biologists interested in fish to social scientists interested in the people who live off the water and fish, to humanists interested in the textual and cartographic images created by people of water and fish, will have a vast new body of evidence to consider. Moreover, researchers will have our project’s collaborative and interdisciplinary research methods and software tools to assist them.

Biographical sketch: Christopher Morris is a historian (PhD, Florida, 1991) and author, most recently, of The Big Muddy: An Environmental History of the Mississippi and Its Peoples from Hernando de Soto to Hurricane Katrina (Oxford, 2012). His research into historical relationships between humans and the natural environment has made much use of historical maps and other images. See, for example, his essay on La Salle, published in Terrae Incognitae (2004). His current project on the Great Lakes follows many of the same cartographers of the Mississippi and the Gulf Coast north to the waters they first charted.

The American Journey of Count Florian Jolly,
An Early Nineteenth Century French Émigré

Anthony Páez Mullan

Much as Americans were lured to Louisiana by “quick fortunes”, so too were Jean Baptiste Florian Jolly, a French aristocrat in exile, and members of his wife’s family. This paper focuses on the American experience of Jolly, also known as the Count of Pontradieu (Pontcadeuc). 

Born in the northern French port of Saint-Malo in 1767, he and his wife (Marguerite Marie Le Det de Segrais) fled to England in 1793 to escape the revolution. Of their several talents, they were both artists, and they also possessed a notable collection of engravings and drawings, many acquired in France before the Revolution. In the 1790s, he established a private school for boys in Bath and hired compatriots who had also fled the French revolution. At a slightly later date, Mme. Florian erected a school for girls at Laytonstone in Epping Forest. This school was intended to impart more than social skills and graces to young ladies. Specifically it was intended to teach practical science as well.

The bulk of this paper concerns the two year period of 1808 to 1810. During this time, the Count left England for the United States lured by the possibility of a comfortable and easy life; he traveled by stage coach from New York to Pittsburgh and then down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers on a flat boat to New Orleans. His journey down river, his arrival in New Orleans, and the reunion with his brothers-in-law in Louisiana are succinctly captured and reflected in nine letters from the count to his wife who temporarily remained behind in London with their daughters. These letters are housed in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress.

By examining this correspondence in conjunction with contemporary land ownership maps of Louisiana (Library of Congress) and The Navigator, a popular manual for travelers from Pittsburgh to New Orleans, I will show: (1) how important family and connections were to the count, (2) how the count’s expectations were similar to those of Americans migrating west, and (3) how he interacted with other individuals who were involved in settling a borderland region with competing and conflicting allegiances.

As with other French of the time, the impetus for Florian Jolly to emigrate may well have stemmed from his brothers-in-law, Emmanuel and Joseph who had already settled in Louisiana. Networks of family, relatives, and friends were significant in providing practical information and support for those, both royalists and Bonapartists, who wanted to settle in the United States Louisiana in particular. In addition, the French cultural heritage of Louisiana seems also to have been a factor.

The count, like many Americans of the time, decided on taking the river route from Pittsburgh to New Orleans. From his letters, we learn that he knew whom he should contact to have a flat boat built. In subsequent letters, he identifies towns and places that he passed on the boat and gives information about local produce and the commercial potential of those places. Much of this information was well disseminated by travel manuals such as Zadok Cramer’s Navigator, first published in 1802. The fact that this work exists in a French translation from 1806 seems to suggest that there was a demand for such information by French travelers seeking to settle in the Mississippi Valley.

The correspondence reveals that the count was quite practical. The letters are peppered with sums and figures having to do with produce, transportation, and the cost of slave labor. Despite his disinclination for the world of business, he evidently contemplated the life of a planter or of a merchant. However, at some point Florian came back to the idea of establishing a school.

On a visit to Montesano near Baton Rouge in the spring of 1809, Florian was enthusiastic by the prospect of opening a school in that district. Several wealthy planters lived there who wanted their children to acquire an education including culture. At the time, this district formed part of Spanish West Florida settled by Spanish administrators, French, Americans, and some British. This area would soon witness a short lived revolution before being transferred from Spain to the United States. What is noteworthy is that William Herries, the speculator and former English banker, bought Montesano with the idea of establishing a town on the Mississippi River. In a letter from Florian to his wife, he explains, “Colonel Herries… has just set up a steam engine on the banks of the Mississippi River, where this land is situated. He wants to found a city here and to employ us to establish ourselves here and here to undertake – I a college and you a boarding school…” This was less than a year and a half before the West Florida revolt of September 1810.

By September 1811, Florian Jolly had died of a fever. His wife and daughters had arrived in New Orleans where they established a school for young ladies.

Biographical Sketch: Anthony Mullan is a cartographic reference specialist in the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress. Previously he served as the Fine Arts Specialist for the Library of Congress. His area of expertise is Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Iberian peninsula. He has conducted extensive research on manuscript maps of the South and Central America. He is the author of several articles in the field. In 2005, he was awarded a staff fellowship at the Kluge Center of the Library of Congress do pursue his research project: Texts of Travel, Exploration, and Conquest in Hispanic America, 1500-1900: A Selective and Annotated Guide to Materials in Special Collections of the Library of Congress.

The Other Texas:  Expectation, Paradox, and Assimilation
in the Pánfilo de Narváez Expedition of 1527

Ann Ortiz

The ever changing European perceptions of and expectations concerning Coastal and Interior Texas in early Spanish exploration is demonstrated through numerous maps and journal or chronicle accounts. Before the 1520s, the principal evidence of Spanish of knowledge of Texas, then part of La Florida, was found in the various maps of the Gulf coastal areas. Not only were the Spanish of that period at a visual and conceptual disadvantage of being "on the outside looking in", but they were also unskilled in the customs and world views of the indigenous inhabitants of coastal Texas. Voyages had hugged the Texas coast and cartographers had mapped out in some detail the many rivers it contained but had not ventured yet into the interior.  In this study I would like to show how shifts in perception of Texas and the Gulf of Mexico can be traced through both physical evidence of maps and experiential, textual evidence of journals and reports as shown in Cabeza de Vaca's Relación and Fernandez de Oviedo's Joint Report.  Area maps produced expectations of finding gold and riches in the Gulf areas. Shortly after Alvarez de Pineda described the presence of gold, Juan Vespucci drew up a planisphere in 1526 in which he introduced the name "Rio de Oro.  An anonymous map appearing in 1527, believed to be by Diego de Ribeiro depicts a River of Gold around the Rio Escondido, located at the mouth of the present day Nueces River and concealed by the barrier islands. The map also shows a River of Giants (possibly referring to the Karankawa Indians).

In the same year of Pineda's sketch and descriptions the Narváez expedition set out to explore lands around Pánuco, now Tampico, Mexico. They were blown off course by strong winds from the North and landed near Tampa Bay, Florida. Accounts of the expedition by Cabeza de Vaca and Oviedo describe a repeated process of expectation, paradox, and assimilation among the surviving as well as the non-surviving members of the failed expedition. The entire journey from Cuba to La Florida with its intended but missed destination of Pánuco, Mexico and its subsequent sojourn into the interior was a disaster and an inversion of the conquistador ideals. Furthermore, the disease and death that ensued alienated the native groups of that area to such an extent that the settlement of La Florida was delayed for several years. Throughout the eight year journey, six and a half of which were spent in Texas, captivity, starvation, and hardship plagued the survivors. Oviedo's accounts of Narváez's character and life point to paradoxical experiences through which he did not seem to benefit. On the other hand, at numerous points along the overland journey, the four survivors of the expedition acquired skills and strategies for survival and mediation through paradoxical experencies and partial assimilation among native groups of Texas, chiefly the Mariames, Yguaces, Charrucos, Avavares, Maliacones, Arabados, and Cuchendados.

Biographical sketch: Ann Ortiz is an Associate Professor of Spanish and the Director of the College of Arts and Sciences Honors Program at Campbell University in Buies Creek, NC. She also coordinates medical Spanish classes with the Physician's Assistant, Master of Public Health, Doctor of Physical Therapy, and Doctor of Osteopathy programs through Campbell's new Medical School and works with Farmworkers Ministries. She taught previously at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill and Wake Technical Community College. She has presented and published in the Mountain Interstate Foreign Language Conference and SHD on topics such as Spanish American literature, Spanish exploration of the Americas, Cabeza de Vaca, Jorge Luis Borges, Octavio Paz, ESL, and Medical Spanish. In 2012 she was the first professor nominated from Campbell University for the AmeriCorp-Vista Campus Compact's Thomas Erlich Award for Civically Engaged Faculty.

The Politics of Exploration:
The Uses and Abuses of LaSalle

Gene Rhea Tucker

LaSalle's expeditions were wrapped up in political intrigue and had far-reaching geopolitical implications.  LaSalle's appropriation of French plans to invade New Spain, and his attendant falsification of his already jumbled cartographic information, led to the fiasco of his Texas expedition.  But the maps of North America in the wake of his explorations led to more expeditions, claims of territory, settlement, and, eventually, warfare over much of the continent.  The uses and abuses of LaSalle's expedition were of far-ranging importance to the region.

Biographical sketch: Gene Rhea Tucker earned his BA and MA in history from Tarleton State University in Stephenville, Texas.  His master's thesis on the coal-mining boomtown-turned-ghosttown of Thurber, Texas, was published by the Texas Tech University Press in 2012.  He received his PhD in Transatlantic History in 2011 at the University of Texas at Arlington, writing his dissertation on place-names in the Spanish New World.  He has published several articles and presented papers on a wide range of topics including the cartography of La Salle's expeditions.  He has been an SHD member since 2007 and currently teaches history at Temple College and Texas A&M University–Central Texas.

Explorations of the Moon by Mary Adela Blagg (1858-1944)
and Kira S. Shingareva (1938 -2013)

Will C. van den Hoonard

This paper considers the work of Mary Adela Blagg (1858–1944) and Kira S. Shingareva (1938 - 2013) in unfolding the cartographic mysteries of the Moon.  It speaks to their respective contrasting lives and purposes: amateur vs trained specialist, collator of centuries of lunar maps vs analyzer of satellite imagery, and revealer of lunar cartography facing Earth vs illuminator of cartography of the far side of the Moon.  They shared a deep interest in the Moon, with each making substantial advances in the field of selenography.

Biographical sketch: Will C. van den Hoonaard is Professor Emeritus at the University of New Brunswick and Research Associate at the Atlantic Centre for Qualitative Research and Analysis at St. Thomas University (Fredericton, Canada).  His books express a wide range of interests: the Dutch of New Brunswick, Iceland fishermen, Baha’i Studies, the world of cartographers, qualitative research, and ethics in research.
His books include: The Seduction of Ethics: The Transformation of the Social Sciences (2011), Map Worlds: A History of Women in Cartography (2013), Essentials of Thinking Ethically in Qualitative Research (with D.K. van den Hoonaard, 2013), The Equality of Women and Men: The Experience of the Bahá’í Community of Canada (with D.K. van den Hoonaard, 2006), Walking the Tightrope: Ethical Issues for Qualitative Researchers (2002), Working with Sensitizing Concepts (1997), and The Origins of the Bahá’í Community of Canada, 1898-1948 (1996).

Born in the Netherlands, he lived in France, and migrated to Canada. He left high school and worked as a map editor, receptionist in a European Patent Bureau, and as a sampler in a goldmine in the Northwest Territories. He obtained a PhD at the University of Manchester.

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